Books in March 2019, Part 2

UX for Lean Startups
Laura Klein

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Lean startup or not, it is more than likely that few design teams have the luxury of time. If you are not new to UX or design and have been keeping a somewhat conscientious tab on learning, you probably don’t need to read this book. I did anyway, just to let you know that you don’t have to. 🧐 

It did drive home several points for me (your mileage may vary) and while these aren’t new insights, it’s good to be reminded: 1. User research need not be a mammoth task; be clear about what you want to achieve and don’t boil the ocean; 2. Qualitative research helps create hypotheses and narrows down what to test; 3. Experiment, test, and iterate; set up a cadence for continuous discovery and design. 


Measure What Matters
John Doerr

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I’m going to be brief here and say that I like what I hear and read about OKRs.

I liked this book too, and though I’ve read slightly negative reviews about how this is just a book of case studies (which truthfully, it is), I enjoyed it because of them case studies. Stories are more engaging, and it is easier to believe them. However, I shall also acknowledge that stories are often flawed, misremembered, glorified collections of details and incidents. Doesn’t make them less memorable. 

The concept of OKRs is straightforward. Make a goal or an objective, then put in place activities to achieve it and metrics to measure these activities. Reviewing them is simple and impartial — were the key results achieved? While the book talks about implementing OKRs on an organisational level (I very sincerely wish that they really do help with strategic alignment and focus like the stories here mentioned, because it makes me hopeful), I think personal OKRs would be a good substitute for new year resolutions. I like that it is a goal and a plan -in-one, so you can’t make one without the other.  


AI Superpowers
Kai-Fu Lee

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I don’t know enough about artificial intelligence, and I want to know what lies beyond sensationalistic headlines and hopeful high-level discussions. And, this is a great book to start acquiring that knowledge. There is a lot to know about AI as well as its development in past and present technologies. Its role in the future products and services can’t possibly be overstated, given how pervasive technology is in our day-to-day. 

But the part I enjoyed most was reading about how China came to be a major player in AI and digital technologies. The country’s rise to being a digital and data powerhouse did not come by sheer luck. China’s first internet boom in the 1990s yielded copycat companies (Wang Xing’s Xiaonei and Meituan, Charles Zhang’s Sohu etc), and the fierce competition amongst these companies and their other copycats meant that only the fittest would survive. They learnt what worked and what failed with Chinese users, and continuously iterated and localised their products and services. “Every divergence between Chinese user preferences and a global product became an opening that local competitors could attack”, and Silicon Valley’s reluctance to adapt their global products (eBay, Groupon, Google) for Chinese users precipitated their demise.   

The government’s campaign and support for mass entrepreneurship and innovation + the emergence and subsequent ubiquity of internet-enabled mobile devices in China in the late 2000s and early 2010s = enabled companies and enabled users. Tencent’s angbao move / attack into the mobile payments space was very smart! On a local note, I wonder if Grab’s angbao campaign during this year’s Chinese New Year had similar intentions.  

Ok, back to AI. According to Lee, most of what AI is and will be in the near future is based on what has already been existing in the AI world. Breakthroughs in AI research will be harder to come by, contrary to popular media representation. The implementation of AI is the innovation. Lee mentions 4 waves of AI: 1. Internet AI (data, machine learning, and algorithms to serve up more accurate and relevant content/recommendations); 2. Business AI (Leveraging huge structured datasets to identify weak features or recognise correlations, and predict or execute outcomes); 3. Perception AI (OMO — online-merge-offline — environments where data generated and collected in the digital space is used to inform our offline and physical environments); 4. Autonomous AI (your lovely robots and self-driving cars). 

However, as AI revolutionises manufacturing and production, it will “deprive poor countries of the opportunity to kick-start economic growth through low-cost exports”. Even within developed economies, the gap between companies or industries with a foothold in AI and those without will continue to widen, as the former leverages AI-enabled productivity advantages and benefits. This may have the worrying effect of driving down prices and eliminating competition. 

Lastly, and one that hits closer to home, is the concern about jobs. The author mentions two different kinds of job losses: one-to-one replacement (your job is lost because technology can do it better); and one that results from ground-up disruption (essentially, your job no longer exists because the capabilities involved are no longer necessary). 

In the last few chapters, Lee laid out a blueprint for “human coexistence with AI”. Among his suggestions, I found the stipend for social investment, where individuals are rewarded for socially-beneficial activities, intriguing and frankly, a possible one (though the reward matrix would be a tricky one). 

Ah, this is more a book summary than I expected it to be. Good for forgetful ol’ future me.  


The Coddling of the American Mind
Greg Lukianoff, and Jonathan Haidt

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Do you remember how old you were when you were first allowed to venture outdoors alone? I remember evening sessions at the playground when I was in kindergarten, and the adult supervision was a handful of parents or grandparents of a couple of kids also at the playground. Sometimes my mum would be there, but most times, she would be back at our flat. We would get summoned for dinner, or when chores awaited. My parents were pretty laid-back, but to be fair, Singapore was and is still a very safe country, and accidents at the playground and elsewhere were far and few between.  

Despite knowing that the crime rates in American cities have declined, it wasn’t a great surprise to learn from the book that American kids and teenagers don’t quite enjoy this kind of freedom (well, it is all thanks to all these crazy shooting incidents). It also wasn’t surprising to read that freedom beyond physical whereabouts and activities has also increasingly been curtailed. Even in Singapore, I’ve noticed that parents have gotten more watchful and anxious; expectations have gotten to be rather plentiful in an ever-increasing number of areas. With expectations, I would say, come anxieties. With anxieties, comes overprotective and overindulgent “helicopter” parenting that ironically has failed to ready our youth’s attitudes and mindsets for well, real life. 

The book talks about three great untruths that have contributed to this coddling: 1. The Untruth of Fragility (What doesn’t kill you makes you weaker); 2. The Untruth of Emotional Reasoning (Always trust your feelings); 3. The Untruth of Us Versus Them (Life is a battle between good people and evil people). To elaborate the effects of these untruths, the authors raised various events that happened on American campuses in the past decade — pointless witch hunts and actual violence arising from a “common-enemy” mindset in reaction to presumed threats to emotional “safety”, resulting in a call-out culture and a lack of rigour in exploring diverse and necessary viewpoints. This is a worrisome self-perpetuating cycle.

While the book is ostensibly about American youth, I found the ideas and the described effects relevant for my non-American and non-youth life. A particularly sobering one is the “concept creep” of the meaning “safety”. Where it used to refer to physical safety — and it is never wrong to ensure physical safety — the term “safety” has now expanded to include “emotional safety”. That doesn’t sound too bad, does it? But “emotional safety” is fraught with subjectivity and personal biases. It also sounds very much like an echo chamber to me. Expecting others to maintain your “emotional safety” is training in fragility, and that will make you weaker over time. 

“A culture that allows the concept of ‘safety’ to creep so far that it equates emotional discomfort with physical danger is a culture that encourages people to systematically protect one another from the very experiences embedded in daily life that they need to become strong and healthy.” 

“When children are raised in a culture of safetyism, which teaches them to stay ‘emotionally safe’ while protecting them from every imaginable danger, it may set up a feedback loop: kids become more fragile and less resilient, which signals to adults that they need more protection, which then makes them even more fragile and less resilient.” 

Books in March 2019, Part 1

It appears that I’ve been mostly writing about books these days. I reckon that it is better than not writing, and writing these little summaries helps me with my reading and information retention. Not to mention, it is also a great motivation for me to actually finish my books instead of leaving them unloved at 63% — 4 books currently suffer from this neglect, and it is not because they aren’t any good; it’s all me.

• • •

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The McKinsey Way
Ethan M. Rasiel

This is quite a dull book. If you are interested in how McKinsey consultants worked in the 90s, maybe this is worth a read.

I’m not sure how much of the work culture and practices still apply in present times (it’s been a full 2 decades), but I sure hope the hours have gotten better. I’m not against long working hours; I’m just not a fan of the glorification of the practice — if you need a badge of honour, let it be the outcome of your long hours. 

Anyway, if you aren’t sure how smart McKinsey consultants are, this book will die trying to convince you.

Understandably, the approaches mentioned here are better elaborated in newer and more current books publications. The Waterfall chart, though, is pretty cool. 

(Goodreads)


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Born A Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood
Trevor Noah

I didn’t know that I knew nothing about South Africa. After reading this book, I now know that I know next to nothing about South Africa (the little that I know now, I read about in this book). 

I kept hearing Trevor Noah’s voice as I read this; it was as if I was listening to this as an audiobook instead. 

I enjoyed this thoroughly, and along with Noah’s very exciting childhood, I learnt a little about the country and its history along the way. Especially interesting to read about was the use of language (intended or not) to sow / maintain discord between its people. 

(Off-topic here, but reading really does expand your understanding of the world. Then you get to decide what you want to feel about that.)

(Goodreads)


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Shane the Lone Ethnographer
Sally Campbell Galman

This wasn’t the book I thought it was. I’ve always wanted to conduct ethnography, but I was framing the activity as one for design. While ethnography has been used in design research, its roots are in anthropology, and this book is mostly written for a non-designer audience and more for academic researchers. Nonetheless, it is a solid introduction into ethnographic research and methods. 

This book is easy to read and I appreciated the brevity its comic-book format provides. Its chapters about data collection, analysis, and writing are relevant for anyone doing research! Be structured, be disciplined, and start analysing and writing early and consistently. Sounds like common sense, does it? Oh, just you wait.

(Goodreads

Textbook, by Amy Krouse Rosenthal

Once in a very, very long while, you read something that changes you. This book did, but I can’t really tell you how exactly. Not yet, anyway. 

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Textbook is a peculiar book. Throughout the book, via cues and questions, Rosenthal invites you to interact with her. Share a thought, a memory, a moment, or a photograph. You can even win a pie! The interactions are facilitated via text messages; being from the other end of her world (and before knowing about Rosenthal’s death), I did not and merely browsed others’ contributions on the book’s accompanying website. 

But it is not these invites to interact that make this a peculiar book. It is one of many contributing factors — the book is sectioned into different subjects (Geography, Science, Music etc); the book runs the gamut of content, from poetry to riddles to art to slice-of-life recollections; it has no particular narrative; there is quite a number of tables and charts… It is unique, funny, thoughtful, thought-provoking, real, and surprising. It is part Yoko Ono’s Grapefruit, and part Miranda July

• • •

When I finished the book, I went into Goodreads to mark the book as read. I hadn’t read any of the posted reviews of the book previously, but I loved the book and I wanted to find some comrades (the average rating was/is >4.0, so I knew I would find some solidarity). 

The first review I tapped into saddened me, not for the reviewer’s views, but because it mentioned that Rosenthal was diagnosed with cancer soon after Textbook’s publication and had passed away from the illness. It also mentioned that Rosenthal was the author of a NYT’s Modern Love article, You May Want To Marry My Husband. I remember reading that article when it first came out; it was a poignant and heartbreaking read. It was one of those things you read and never really quite forget. It was a love letter you never would hope to receive, but wish that you would be a worthy recipient if things ever go crap. 

• • •

Textbook is the kind of book I hope I would write if I ever do write one, and when I do, I hope that I would remember her imagination, her sense of wonder, and her guts to imagine this book. 

It’s hard to say what this book is really about, except it’s about life. That sounds a little lame, so I shall share a couple of pages from the book. 

• • •

I borrowed the book from NLB, but have since purchased the book. I bought 2 copies, one for myself and one for one of you who happens to be reading this.

In the spirit of Textbook, I’m gifting a copy to the 7th person who shares a little about their last or most memorable taxi conversation (I’ve always been a fan). I will leave the book in a Popstation locker; you will need to be in Singapore to collect the book, but no address will be needed. An email address will be required. 🙂

Books in February 2019

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Call Them By Their True Names
Rebecca Solnit

I haven’t read Rebecca Solnit before this, but I’m glad that’s no longer true. This is a collection of essays from the last 5 years, and the themes revolve around politics, environmentalism, bias/exclusion, and the justice system. It was refreshing to read from an unfamiliar category, and Solnit’s writings were urgent, current, and engaging. Her disdain for President #45 was obvious, rightfully so, and such a delight to read about and nod along to. 

I found these particularly interesting: 

New and old SF, the effects of gentrification, and the tragic story of the killing of Alex Nieto

Preaching to the choir as a way to build influence and strengthen solidarity through a more robust debate of beliefs and convictions; seeing the other side as the audience to reach out to and making compromises to that effect sometimes results in a dilution or betrayal of values.

(Goodreads)


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Predictably Irrational 
Dan Ariely

I have read a lot on cognitive biases and norms, even when their names and their origins sometimes escape me. (It is one reason why the academic life is not for me.)

Ariely’s book relates the various experiments conducted to test and validate some of these strange cognitive challenges that so often colour our perceptions and influence the way we behave. 

Price of zero / free: Similar price reductions may induce different behaviours, when one of the reductions results in a zero-cost price tag. 

Social norms vs market norms: Money changes the way we think about things. Behaviour may be better encouraged by appealing to the social eager-to-please animal in us.  

Distrust: Once earned, perpetuates itself.

The rational and the aroused: We are different selves when aroused, and the both of us make very different decisions. 

Dishonesty: When the conditions are willing, people cheat but only to a certain extent. This extent is influenced by social influence and perception, and our “internal honesty monitor”. We treat different transgressions differently - appropriating office supplies does not set off an alarm, but appropriating $10 from the petty cash is likely to. However, our honesty or value monitor can be triggered by the mere suggestion or memory of ethics.  

(Goodreads)


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Anything You Want: 40 Lessons for a New Kind of Entrepreneur
Derek Sivers

This is such a short read that it felt like a cheat book. But it wasn’t intended to be; I only realised that it was that short after I borrowed it from the online library and started reading it. 

What’s pretty amazing about this book is how compact but thorough and insightful it is. Derek Sivers founded CD Baby, an independent music distributor in the 90’s and 00’s and this is the story of what happened and his thoughts/lessons on what worked and what didn’t. A similar memoir (if this can even be called that) would had run into a substantial tome. 

Do what’s right, do what you love until you don’t. Know your customers, empower your employees (but maybe keep an eye on any profit-sharing scheme). 

(Goodreads)


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Meltdown: Why Our Systems Fail and What We Can Do About It
Chris Clearfield and András Tilcsik

Highly readable, and oh-so-relevant. It is an eloquent book, and the authors have included tons of examples to illustrate their points.

We are living in a world of complexity, where activities, processes and transactions involve a network of actors interacting with one another within a web of interconnected systems. Our systems are tightly coupled, which introduces dependency and opaqueness. Which, you can imagine, can go south very quickly. 

Clearfield (perfect name for a book like this, no?) and Tilcsik articulated measures that we can take to increase transparency and reduce errors in our thinking and perception, which ultimately will improve our decision-making and guide less biased actions.

SPIES, premortem, and predetermined criteria: To ensure that decisions are based on facts, and can withstand objective validation and scrutiny.

Diversity: Because just the presence of difference is enough to change how people think (more skepticism, less comfort zone).

The “stranger” or outsider: To provide diversity in opinion, and introduce more objectivity and innovation in problem-finding and problem-solving.

Slack and transparency in systems: These can be designed.

Get-there-itis: Diagnose, do, evaluate, adapt. Do not spend all your time time in the task zone.

(Goodreads)